Grant v Bragg

English Contract Law

Grant v Bragg
Image: ‘Attorney Reading’ by Honore Daumier

Sadly as can sometimes happen, the mediation by a solicitor can prove the undoing of bargaining between parties, when for one reason or another, the third party attempts to manipulate matters to the detriment of those he was initially employed to serve.

On this occasion, a shareholder sale agreement was drafted by two company co-directors, who upon his retirement, the respondent had decided to relinquish his stake holding for a sum of around £347,000. During the preliminary stages of the contract, numerous oral agreements were made with little to no conflict, however as time progressed, the matter became complicated through the construction of a draft agreement, which had been worded by a second firm of solicitors.

At the point of litigation, communication had deteriorated to a quick succession of emails between the respondent and the solicitor alleged to be acting for both parties. Within these exchanges were a number of comments and misinterpretations that ultimately derailed the negotiations, however for the purposes of the clarification the timeline was as follows:

(1) A draft agreement was made on behalf of both parties, subject to mutual consent to document wording.

(2) The respondent’s solicitors suggested an amendment to the terms of the agreement.

(3) The suggestion was construed by the appellant as a rejection of the agreement.

(4) The mediating solicitor construed from a telephone conversation, that the respondent was refusing to sign the agreement without knowledge of the appellant’s future plans.

(5) The respondent expressed that he perceived the appellant to be contractually obliged to purchase the shares.

(6) The respondent denied he had any interest in the future of the company or the appellant.

(7) The mediating solicitor imposed a time restriction for acceptance of the draft agreement.

(8) The mediating solicitor withdrew his services upon expiration of the time restriction.

(9) The respondent later agreed to sign the agreement, despite his earlier reservations.

In the first hearing, the judge found that the discussions within the first and last email were tantamount to a binding contract, and so awarded accordingly. However, at the Court of Appeal, a reexamination of the facts and the chronology of events, painted quite a different picture.

Here, it was held that while the contract itself was not subject to time penalties, the position adopted by the ‘mediating’ solicitor was one that implied how all terms of the bargain were now defined through his presence, therefore by the imposition of a threshold upon which to contract, the eventual acceptance by the respondent was both after the fact and thereby null in effect, thus it was for that reason (and perhaps unnecessary element of the negotiation), that the appeal was upheld and judgment awarded to the appellant, while holding that:

“[T]here is a distinction between a counter-offer or a refusal, which does put an end to an offer, and a request for further information which does not amount to a new offer but is to an investigation of the offering party’s position.”

Carlton Communications plc v The Football League

English Contract Law

Carlton Communications plc v The Football League
‘Football’ by Anthony Barrow

The phrase ‘subject to contract’ is pivotal to the preservation of legal rights, particularly when negotiating for multi-million pound contracts. On this occasion, the eagerness of a national sports fraternity overtook the urgency for a logical and constructive approach to long-term franchise agreements, resulting in an outcome none would have wished for.

In June 2000, the Football League entered into a contract for licensing rights with ITV Digital (or ONDigital as they were then known), who themselves were subsidiaries to both Carlton Communications Plc and Granda Media Plc. Having begun negotiations in April 2000, ONDigital were extended permissions to tender for contracts not exceeding £10m, whereupon this particular bid was now worth in excess of £240m, which therefore required the oversight of Granda and Carlton, but nothing more.

In a document titled ‘Initial Bid for Audio-Visual Rights Football League 2001/2 – 2003/4 ONDigital’ Executive Director Graeme Stanley expressed within the Financial Arrangements section, that:

“ONdigital and its shareholders will guarantee all funding to the FL outlined in this document.”

While noting that as with the remainder of the document, all statements therein were ‘subject to contract’ and therefore not binding upon any parties.

During the negotiation period, the value of the contracts increased to £315m, and at the point of their contracting, express notice was given in clause 18, which read:

“18. ONdigital and FL shall use their best endeavours to execute a long form agreement within 60 days which will be negotiated with reference to the Football League Pre-Tender Document of 27th March 2000…and will include clauses such as standard legal boilerplate, confidentiality, compensation for ONdigital if there are significant changes in competition structure which adversely affect the value of the rights granted to ONdigital, minimum broadcast commitments, quality guarantees for programmes and competitions and the like.”

In December 2001, talks began which centred around the alleged winding down of ONDigital, and so the claimants proposed that the defendants Carlton and Granda were now liable as guarantors for any sums due, which at the point of litigation, was little under £134m. As was expected, the defendants noted that while assisting as a parent company, at no point did they enter into a contract with the claimants, and as such, were not responsible for any ONDigital debts outstanding.

Relying upon the comments made in the pre-contract documentation, as well as a vague mention of guarantees in Clause 18, the court examined how corporate contracting and personal liability are distinctly different animals. With reference to principles espoused in Salomon v Salomon, Kerr LJ had himself expressed in JH Rayner (Mincing Lane) Ltd v Department of Trade and Industry how:

“The crucial point on which the House of Lords overruled the Court of Appeal in that landmark case was precisely the rejection of the doctrine that agency between a corporation and its members in relation to the corporation‟s contracts can be inferred from the control exercisable by the members over the corporation or from the fact that the sole objective of the corporation’s contracts was to benefit the members.”

While due reference was given to the Statute of Frauds 1677, in which s.4 clearly explains how:

“No action shall be brought whereby to charge the defendant upon any special promise to answer for the debt default or miscarriage of another person unless the agreement upon which such action shall be brought or some memorandum or note thereof shall be in writing and signed by the party to be charged therewith or some other person thereunto by him lawfully authorised.”

While it was further noted that in ‘Chitty on Contracts’, paragraph 4-022 stressed how:

“Apart from the exceptional case of a written offer signed by one party and accepted orally by the other, the writing must acknowledge the existence of a contract. It is now settled, after some hesitation, that a letter expressed to be ‘subject to contract’ is not in itself a sufficient memorandum to satisfy the statute.”

This rendered any argument for financial guarantee fatal to the claim, and left the court no choice but to exempt the defendants from all liability relating to damages for breach of contract, while holding that:

“[A] subject to contract proposal is the antithesis of or at the least incompatible with a unilateral offer. The former is not open to acceptance; it is the essence of the latter that it is.”