R v Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food ex p Hedley Lomas [1991]

European Law

R v Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food ex p Hedley Lomas
‘The Sheep Farmer’ by Barry Ross Smith

The application of a Treaty article while a harmonising Directive precludes the right to endorse sanctions for Member State non-compliance, results in a loss of licence for Ireland, when exporting sheep for slaughter. This led to a preliminary ruling to ascertain if such a Directive could reasonably deny, or even restrict, exportation to Member States failing to uphold the aims of the assigned article.

For clarity, art.43 EC and art.100 EC were designed to reduce the suffering of animals sent for slaughter through the use of stunning and killing within specific guidelines under Directive 74/577/EEC, while art.36 EC includes restrictive measures surrounding the importation and exportation of products (including livestock) when acting in the interests of public safety, security and protection of human, animal and plant life.

When Spain transposed Directive 74/577/EEC it mirrored the terms of art.1 of the Directive with the exception of sanctions for non-compliance,  and so the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food prohibited sheep exportation to Spain through the denial of specific export licences, which left an Irish sheep farmer unable to export his livestock to a fully compliant Spanish slaughterhouse.

Having sought judicial review and damages in the High Court, the court requested a preliminary ruling under art.177 EC, and so asked the European Court of Justice: 

1. Did the terms of Directive 74/577/EEC prevent restrictive measures under art.36 EC? 

2. Did the effects of art.36 EC have universal effect, or were they subject to specific criteria?

3. Where ineffective, was the Member State applying the article liable for compensation where an export licence was denied?

Whereupon the Court held that:

1. Although the terms of Directive 74/577/EEC did not expressly outline the penalties for non-compliance, it did confer those measures to the Member States in order for legislative powers to ensure the observation of those terms, however the actions taken by the UK were entirely subjective as opposed to evidence-based, therefore to rely upon the effects of art.36 EC was to act without authority when denying the free movement of goods by another Member State.

2. The terms of art.36 EC did not allow one Member State to exercise restrictive powers over another, while the route taken must be one of either action, or complaint to the Commission under art.170 EC or art.186 EC, while continuing to allow the movement of goods unless or until proven correct.

3. When acting in breach of art.43 EC it is the obligation of the acting Member State to provide reparation for damage caused by the breach, as was established in Francovich and others v Italy and Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie de Belastingen, and that when deciding the measure of compensation it must rely upon its own domestic legislation observe the principles of non-discrimination and effective remedy when discussing the matter in the courts and calculating the amount payable, while further reminding the parties that:

“A Member State cannot take unilateral action against defaults by other Member States. The Treaty of Rome created an original legal order in which the procedures necessary for establishing and penalizing a breach of its provisions are strictly regulated.”

Commission v United Kingdom [Excise Duties on Wine] [1980]

European Law

 

Commission v United Kingdom [Excise Duties on Wine]
‘Still Life with Bottle, Glass and Loaf’ by Imitator of Jean-Siméon Chardin

Member State obligations to observe the fairness of the European market when allowing for competition were crystallised in this taxation matter surrounding the importation and domestic production of alcoholic drinks.

The terms of Art.95 EC (in particular para.1) were constructed so as to allow and support the freedom of competition between Member States when selling comparable products including alcoholic beverages in their various forms, however during a period between 1973 and 1981 the United Kingdom deliberately increased the taxation rates for bottled wines over that of bottled beers, thus the margin between the two remained disproportionate for a considerable period and significantly hampered the sale of affordable imported wines in lieu of an over-proliferation of domestic low-volume beers.

When addressed by the European Commission under the inference that such disparity amounted to a breach of para.2 of art.95 EC, it was suggested that while running contrary to the harmonisation of Community law, the Member State was, under art.169 EC now required to submit its own observations in defence of its failure to follow the terms prescribed.

In response the United Kingdom contested the findings with little supporting evidence, thereby prompting the Commission to apply to the European Court of Justice on the strength of the breach, while citing that by way of reparation the United Kingdom was to pay the costs of the action. 

Shortly afterwards the Court also allowed Italy to intervene in support of the Commission under art.37 of the Protocol on the Statute of the Court of Justice, whereupon the Court instructed the three parties to reexamine their arguments and submit relevant chronological sales data before reconvening for judgment.

Having established that the manufacturing processes for beer and wine were comparable, it was then revealed that due to the complex structure of the British market it was only possible to compare prices through the taxation rates applicable to the volume (strength) of the alcohol in hand. 

It was this contradistinction that showed clear support for the suggestion that protective measures had been implemented in order to deprive the import of affordable wines from other Member Sates despite the measures laid down under art.95 and the United Kingdom’s obligation to follow them.

Citing numerous and unsustainable arguments for the heavy taxation of wines (including manufacturing costs (as previously ruled out) and alleged ‘social’ reasons) the Court held that a serious breach of art.95 EC had been in existence not only for a considerable period, but that recent attempts to narrow the margin were indicative of reasons beyond that expected from a Member State when observing their duty to encourage and support the free movement of goods and equality of competition between states, before reminding those responsible that:

“[A] Member State may lay down differing tax arrangements even for identical products on the basis of objective criteria provided that such arrangements pursue objectives of economic policy which are themselves compatible with Community law and that they are not discriminatory or protective in nature.”

Cultural Anthropology v Judicial Reasoning

Academia

Cultural Anthropology
‘Trust’ by Rosei Marci

Written during my final year at university, this 12,000 word research project explores the potential for judicial bias when adjudicating fiduciary breaches across four countries including Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and the United States of America.

Having kept this frankly illuminating piece to myself for the last three years, I thought perhaps it was time to share it with those interested or curious enough to view it, while for the record I was delighted to receive a first-class grade for my earnest efforts.

Simply click here should you wish to learn more.